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Five positioning techniques for robots

Views: 3     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-03-02      Origin: Site

With the continuous improvement of sensing technology, intelligent technology and computing technology, intelligent mobile robots will be able to play a human role in production and life. So what is the mobile robot positioning technology mainly involved? After summarizing the current mobile robot mainly has these 5 positioning technologies.

1. Ultrasonic navigation and positioning technology of mobile robot

The working principle of ultrasonic navigation and positioning is similar to that of laser and infrared. Ultrasonic is usually emitted by the transmitting probe of ultrasonic sensor, and the ultrasonic meets obstacles in the medium and returns to the receiving device.single double universal joint drive shaft company - Xinsanming

Of course, many mobile robots use separate transmitting and receiving devices in navigation and positioning technology. Multiple receiving devices are arranged in the environment map, and transmitting probes are installed on mobile robots.

In the navigation and positioning of mobile robot, because of the defects of ultrasonic sensor itself, such as: Specular reflection and limited beam Angle make it difficult to fully obtain the surrounding environmental information. Therefore, ultrasonic sensor system composed of multiple sensors is usually used to establish the corresponding environmental model, and the information collected by sensors is transmitted to the control system of mobile robot through serial communication. According to the collected signals and the mathematical model, the control system takes some algorithms to process the corresponding data and then the robot's position environment information can be obtained.

Because of the advantages of low cost, fast information acquisition rate and high range resolution, ultrasonic sensors have been widely used in the navigation and positioning of mobile robots for a long time. And it does not need complex image technology to collect environmental information, so it has fast ranging speed and good real-time performance.

2. Mobile robot visual navigation and positioning technology

In the visual navigation and positioning system, the local vision based vehicle-mounted camera navigation system is widely used at home and abroad. In this navigation mode, control devices and sensing devices are mounted on the robot body, and image recognition, path planning and other high-level decisions are completed by the on-board control computer. Visual navigation and positioning system mainly includes: camera (or CCD image sensor), video signal digitization equipment, fast signal processor based on DSP, computer and its peripherals. At present, there are many robot systems using CCD image sensor, its basic component is a line of silicon imaging elements, on a substrate equipped with photosensitive element and charge transfer device, through the charge transfer in turn, the video signals of multiple pixels can be taken out in time and sequence. For example, the resolution of images collected by array CCD sensor can range from 32×32 to 1024×1024 pixels. Visual navigation and positioning system of the working mechanism in simple terms is a surrounding environment of optical processing, use first camera image information acquisition, the acquisition of information is compressed, then feedback it to a composed of neural networks and statistical methods to study subsystem, subsystem will be collected by the learning of image information and the actual location of the robot, Complete the autonomous navigation and positioning function of the robot.

3. GPS

Nowadays, in the application of navigation and positioning technology of intelligent robots, pseudo-distance differential dynamic positioning method is generally adopted. Four GPS satellites are observed together with the reference receiver and dynamic receiver, and the three-dimensional position coordinates of robots can be obtained at a certain time according to a certain algorithm. The differential dynamic positioning eliminates the star clock error. For the user who is 1000km away from the reference station, the star clock error and the troposphere error can be eliminated, so the dynamic positioning accuracy can be significantly improved. However, in mobile navigation, the positioning accuracy of mobile GPS receiver is affected by satellite signal status and road environment, as well as clock error, propagation error, receiver noise and many other factors. Therefore, the simple use of GPS navigation has the problems of low positioning accuracy and low reliability. Therefore, in the navigation application of robots, magnetic compass, optical disk and GPS data are usually used for navigation. In addition, GPS navigation system is not suitable for indoor or underwater robot navigation and the robot system which requires high position accuracy.

4. Light reflection navigation and positioning technology of mobile robotbuy centered universal joint drive shaft - Xinsanming

The laser global positioning system is generally composed of laser rotating mechanism, mirror, photoelectric receiving device and data acquisition and transmission device. Outside work, laser rotating mirror institutions through the launch, when scanning to composed of the reflector after cooperation road signs, reflected light by photoelectric receiving device to test for the signal processing, start the data acquisition program reads the data for the code salver of the rotating mechanism Angle measurement value (target), and then through the communication to the PC data processing, According to the known position and detected information of the landmark, the current position and direction of the sensor in the landmark coordinate system can be calculated, so as to achieve the purpose of further navigation and positioning.

Laser range has a narrow beam of light, good parallelism and scattering is small, the advantages of high range direction, but it also affected by environmental factors interference is bigger, so using laser ranging how to sampled signal denoising is also a big problem, such as laser ranging also exists blind area, so the light by laser navigation and positioning as it is difficult to implement in industrial applications, Generally in a specific range of industrial field detection, such as the detection of pipeline cracks and other occasions more applications. Infrared sensing technology is often used in multi-joint robot obstacle avoidance system to form a large area of robot "sensitive skin", covering the surface of the robot arm, which can detect various objects encountered during the operation of the robot arm.

5. SLAM technology

Most of the leading service robot companies have adopted SLAM technology. Only (SLAMTEC) Silan technology has the exclusive advantage in SLAM technology, what is SLAM technology? To put it simply, SLAM technology refers to the complete process of robot positioning, mapping and path planning in an unknown environment. SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping, real-time Localization and map construction), which was proposed in 1988, is mainly used to study the intelligent robot movement. For the completely unknown indoor environment, equipped with core sensors such as lidar, SLAM technology can help the robot build a map of the indoor environment and assist the robot to walk autonomously.

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  : The Innovation Industrial Park, No.36, Jingwei Road ,Xi'an Economic and Technological Development Zone,Xi'an City,Shaanxi Province,China
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