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Knowledge of Steel

Views: 2     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-04-27      Origin: Site

1.  Mechanical properties of steel

1)  Yield point (σ S)

When the steel or sample is stretched, when the stress exceeds the elastic limit and the steel or sample continues to undergo obvious plastic deformation even though the stress does not increase any more, this phenomenon is called yield, and the minimum stress value when yielding phenomenon is the yield point. Suppose Ps is the external force at the yield point S and Fo is the fracture area of the sample, then the yield point σs =Ps/Fo(MPa).

2)  Yield strength (σ0.2)

The yield point of some metal materials is not obvious and it is difficult to measure. Therefore, in order to measure the yield characteristics of materials, the stress at which the permanent residual plastic deformation is equal to a certain value (usually 0.2% of the original length) is defined as the conditional yield strength or yield strength σ0.2 for short.

3)  Tensile strength (σ B)

The maximum stress reached by a material during tensile stretching from the beginning until fracture occurs. Tensile strength itaxle shaft with double universal joint for sale - Xinsanming represents the capacity of steel to resist fracture size, and the corresponding tensile strength and compressive strength, bending strength and so on. If Pb is the maximum tensile force of the material before it is broken and Fo is the cross-section area of the sample, then the tensile strength σb= Pb/Fo (MPa).

4)  Elongation (δ S)

After the material is broken, the plastic elongation of the length and the percentage of the original specimen length is called elongation or elongation.

5)  Compressive strength ratio (σ S /σ B)

The ratio of the yield point (yield strength) of steel to the tensile strength is called the yield strength ratio. The greater the compressive strength ratio, the higher the reliability of structural parts, the general carbon steel compressive strength ratio is 0.6-0.65, low alloy structural steel is 0.65-0.75 alloy structural steel is 0.84-0.86.

6)  The hardness

Hardness is the ability of a material to resist hard objects pressing into its surface. It is one of the important performance indexes of metal materials. General hardness is taller, wear resistance had jumped over. Commonly used hardness indicators are Brinell hardness, Rockwell hardness and Vickers hardness.

Ø Brinell Hardness (HB)

With a certain load (generally 3000kg), the hardened steel ball of a certain size (generally 10mm in diameter) is pressed into the surface of the material and kept for a period of time. After the load is removed, the ratio of the load and the indentation area is the Brinell hardness value (HB).

Ø Rockwell Hardness (HR)

When HB> 450 or the sample is too small, the Brinell hardness test cannot be used instead of Rockwell hardness measurement. It is to use a diamond cone with a top Angle of 120° or a steel ball with a diameter of 1.59 or 3.18mm to press into the surface of the measured material under a certain load, and the hardness of the material can be calculated by the depth of the indentation. According to the hardness of the test material, it is divided into three different scales:

Ø HRA: Hardness obtained with a 60kg load and a diamond cone press for extremely hard materials such as hard alloys.

Ø HRB: the hardness is obtained by using 100kg load and 1.58mm diameter hardened steel ball, used for low hardness materials (such as annealed steel, cast iron, etc.).

Ø HRC: hardness obtained by 150kg load and drill cone press for very hard materials such as hardened steel.

2. Ferrous and non-ferrous metals

1)  Ferrous metals

Ferrous metals are Iron and its alloys. Such as steel, pig iron, ferroalloy, cast iron, etc. Steel and pig iron are based on iron, with carbon as the main element of the alloy, collectively known as iron carbon alloy.

Pig iron refers to the iron ore into a blast furnace smelting products, mainly used to make steel and castings.

The cast pig iron is melted in the smelting furnace, that is, the cast iron (liquid, iron carbon alloy with carbon content greater than 2.11%), the liquid cast iron is cast into castings, and this cast iron is called cast iron.

Ferroalloy is composed of iron and silicon, manganese, chromium, titanium and other elements of the alloy, ferroalloy is one of the raw materials for steelmaking, steel deoxidizer and alloy element additives used in steelmaking.

The iron carbon alloy with carbon content less than 2.11% is called steel, and the pig iron used for steelmaking is melted in the steelmaking furnace according to a certain process to obtain steel. Steel products are ingot, continuous casting billets and direct casting of various steel castings. Usually speaking of steel generally refers to rolled into a variety of steel.

2)  Non-ferrous metals

Also known as non-ferrous metals, refers to metals and alloys except ferrous metals, such as copper, tin, lead, zinc, aluminum and brass, bronze, aluminum alloy and bearing alloys. In addition to the industrial use of chromium, nickel, manganese, molybdenum, cobalt, vanadium, tungsten, titanium, and so on, these metals are mainly used as alloy additives, to improve the performance of the metal, tungsten, titanium, and molybdenum and so on more for the production of carbide tools. These nonferrous metals are called industrial metals, in addition to precious metals: platinum, gold, silver and other rare metals, including radioactive uranium, radium and so on.

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  : The Innovation Industrial Park, No.36, Jingwei Road ,Xi'an Economic and Technological Development Zone,Xi'an City,Shaanxi Province,China
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