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Properties of metal materials

Views: 0     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-03-30      Origin: Site

The properties of metal materials determine the application range and rationality of materials. The performance of metal materials is mainly divided into four aspects, namely: mechanical properties, chemical properties, physical properties, process properties.

Mechanical properties: Cross shfat double universal joint shafts

Stress: The force on unit sectional area inside a body is called stress. The stress caused by external force is called working stress, and the stressdouble axle shaft with universal joint supplier - Xinsanming balanced inside the object in the absence of external force is called internal stress (such as organizational stress, thermal stress, residual stress left after the machining process).

Mechanical properties: metal at a certain temperature under the external force (load) action, the ability to resist deformation and fracture is called the mechanical properties of metal materials (also known as mechanical properties). Metal materials under load has a variety of forms, it can be static load, also can be dynamic loads, including alone or at the same time on the tensile stress and compressive stress, bending stress and shear stress, torsion stress, as well as the friction, vibration, shock, etc., so measure metal material mechanical performance indexes mainly include the following.

Fatigue performance

Fatigue strength limit of metal materials in the long-term repeated stress or under the action of alternating stress stress generally are less than the yield limit of sigma strength, without significant breakage phenomenon known as the fatigue damage or deformation is fatigue fracture, this is caused by a variety of reasons make localized on the surface of the parts is greater than the sigma s even greater than that of sigma b stress (stress concentration), Plastic deformation or microcrack occurs in the part. With the increase of the number of repeated alternating stresses, the crack gradually deepens (the stress is concentrated at the crack tip) and the actual cross-sectional area of the stress at the part decreases until the local stress is greater than σb and fracture occurs. In practical application, the sample is generally under the action of repeated or alternating stress (tensile stress, compressive stress, bending or torsion stress, etc.), in the specified cycle number (generally take 106~107 times for steel, 108 times for non-ferrous metals) can withstand the maximum stress as the fatigue strength limit, expressed by σ-1, unit MPa.

Chemical properties

The properties of metals that cause chemical reactions with other substances are called the chemical properties of metals. In the practical application of the main consideration of metal corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance (also known as oxidation resistance, which is particularly refers to the metal at high temperature to oxidation resistance or stability), as well as between different metals, metal and non-metal compounds formed on mechanical properties and so on. In the chemical properties of metals, especially the corrosion resistance is of great significance to the corrosion fatigue damage of metals.

Physical properties

The physical properties of metals are mainly considered as follows:

1) Density (specific gravity) : ρ=P/V, unit: gram/cubic centimeter or ton/cubic meter, where P is weight and V is volume. In practical applications, in addition to calculate the weight of the metal parts according to the density, it is important to consider the metal than strength (the ratio of sigma b strength and density rho) to help select material, and related to the nondestructive testing of acoustic detection of acoustic impedance rho (density and the product of the sound velocity C) and X-ray testing medium density of different material to ray energy absorption capacity and so on.      

2) Melting point: The temperature of metal from solid to liquid, has a direct impact on the melting and hot processing of metal materials, and has a great relationship with the high temperature performance of materials.

3) Thermal expansion: With the temperature change, the volume of the material also changes (expansion or contraction) phenomenon called thermal expansion, multi-purpose linear expansion coefficient measurement, that is, the temperature change 1℃, the material length of the increase and decrease of its 0℃ length ratio. Thermal expansibility is related to the specific heat of the material. In practical applications, specific capacity should also be considered (when the material is affected by temperature and other external influences, the increase or decrease of the volume of the material per unit weight, that is, the ratio of volume to mass), especially for the metal parts working in high temperature environment, or in the alternating environment of cold and heat, the impact of the expansion performance must be considered.

4) Magnetism: The property that can attract ferromagnetic objects is magnetism, which is reflected in the permeability, hysteresis loss, residual magnetic induction intensity, coercivity force and other parameters, so that metal materials can be divided into paramagnetic and inverse, soft magnetic and hard magnetic materials.

5) Electrical performance: its electrical conductivity is mainly considered, which has an impact on its resistivity and eddy current loss in electromagnetic nondestructive testing.

Process performance

The adaptability of metal to various processing methods is called process performance, which mainly includes the following four aspects:

1) Cutting performance: Reflects the ease with which metal materials can be machined by cutting tools such as turning, milling, planing, grinding, etc.

2) malleability: Reflecting metal material in the process of pressure to the difficulty of the molding, such as the material is heated to a certain temperature when the plasticity of the high and low (characterized by the size of the plastic deformation resistance), allows the temperature of the thermal pressure processing size, heat bilges cold shrink characteristics related to the microstructure, mechanical properties and the critical deformation limit of the thermal deformation of metal, liquidity, heat conduction performance, etc.

3) Castability: Reflect the metal material melting pouring into casting difficulty degree, performance for the melting state of fluidity, suction, oxidation, melting point, casting microstructure uniformity, compactness, and cold shrinkage rate.

4) Weldability: Reflect the metal material in the local rapid heating, so that the combination of parts quickly melting or half melting (need to pressure), so that the combination of parts firmly together and become a whole degree of difficulty, It is manifested as melting point, inspiratory, oxidizing, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion and contraction characteristics, plasticity and the correlation with the microstructure of joints and nearby materials, and the influence on mechanical properties.

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  : The Innovation Industrial Park, No.36, Jingwei Road ,Xi'an Economic and Technological Development Zone,Xi'an City,Shaanxi Province,China
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