Views: 5 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-02-28 Origin: Site
Our discussion revolves around the machining industry's most common turning, milling, planing, grinding, boring, drilling, line cutting and other processing equipment, and for these processing equipment types, scope of application, structural characteristics and processing accuracy to do a detailed exposition.
1） Type of lathe
There are many types of lathes, as many as 77 according to the statistics of a machining technologist manual. More typical categories are: instrument lathes, single-axis automatic lathes, multi-axis automatic or semi-automatic lathes, rotary or turret lathes, crankshaft and camshaft lathes, vertical lathes, landing and horizontal lathes, copying and multi-tool car, wheel spindle roller ingot and shovel lathes and so on. This is divided into a lot of small classification, the number is different, and in our mechanical industry is more commonly used vertical and horizontal lathe, almost there are machining places can see these two kinds of lathe figure.
2） Scope of application for lathe processing
We mainly select several typical lathe types to introduce the scope of use of machining.
Horizontal lathe, suitable for turning internal and external cylindrical surface, conical surface, forming rotary surface and annular groove, turning section and various threads, can be drilled, reaming, reaming, tapping thread, sleeve thread and knurling and other processes of processing. Although common horizontal lathe with low degree of automation, or more auxiliary time, and in the process of machining but because of its wide processing range and good general performance, this type of machine tools in mechanical machining industry has been widely used and popular, is our machinery industry one of the typical representative of the processing equipment, is also one of indispensable processing equipment machinery processing industry.
Vertical lathe, suitable for all kinds of frame, shell parts processing, also suitable for processing all kinds of parts inside and outside cylindrical surface, conical surface, end face, groove, cutting and drilling, reaming, reaming and other processing, with the help of additional devices can also achieve car thread, car end face, copying, milling and grinding and other processing processes.
3） Machining accuracy of lathe
The machining accuracy of the usual horizontal lathe is as follows:
Roundness: 0.015mm; Cylindricity: 0.02/150mm; Flatness 0.02/¢150mm; Surface roughness: 1.6Ra/μm.
The machining accuracy of vertical lathe is as follows:
Roundness: 0.02mm; Cylindricity: 0.01mm; Flatness 0.03mm.
2. Milling machine
1） Type of milling machine
The type of milling machine is also complex and diverse, more typical categories are: instrument milling machine, cantilever and pillow milling machine, planer type milling machine, plane milling machine, copying milling machine, vertical lifting table milling machine, horizontal lifting table milling machine, bed milling machine, tool milling machine. There are a lot of smaller categories, and there are a lot of different ones. And in the mechanical industry is more commonly used vertical machining center and gantry machining center, almost there are machining places can see these two types of milling machine, we also for these two typical milling machine to do a general introduction and analysis.
2） Milling machine processing scope
There are too many types and configurations of milling machines, and the range of applications varies greatly. So we do an introduction of machine processing scope about the most commonly used vertical machining center and gantry machining center two typical milling.
Vertical machining center
Vertical machining center is actually a vertical CNC milling machine with tool library, its main feature is the use of multi-blade rotary cutting tool for cutting, can be plane, groove, tooth parts, spiral surface and various surfaces of the processing. Especially with the application of NUMERICAL control technology, the processing range of this type of machine tool has also been greatly improved, in addition to all kinds of milling operations, but also for the workpiece drilling, boring, reaming and tapping and other composite processing, has a very broad practical and popular significance.
Gantry machining center
Compared with the vertical machining center, gantry machining center is the compound application of CNC gantry milling machine with knife library. On the processing scope, gantry machining center almost has all the processing capacity of the ordinary vertical machining center, and on the dimension of parts processing, can adapt to a larger tools on machining efficiency and machining accuracy at the same time also has a very big advantage, especially in the practical application of five axis Five axis coupling type gantry machining center, the machining scope also got great improvement. For the development of China's manufacturing industry to the high - precision direction laid a foundation.
3) Milling machine processing accuracy
Vertical machining center:
Flatness: 0.025/300mm; Roughness: 1.6Ra/μm.
Gantry machining center:
Flatness: 0.025/300mm; Roughness: 2.5Ra/μm.
1) Type of planer
Compared with lathes and milling machines, planer types are much less, more typical types are: cantilever planer, planer, head planer, edge and mold planer, etc., these categories are divided into many small types of planer products. And it should be the shaper and planer which the utilization rate is the highest, the popularity of the most widely in the machinery industry.
2) The processing scope of planer
Planer cutting movement is mainly relative machining cycle between rectilinear motion, its applicable planing part features for planar, slope and concave and convex surface processing, can also according to various surface planing, but because of the limitations of its processing characteristics, processing and cutting speed is not too high, planer knives for machining and return trip is not involved in parts processing, Therefore, empty stroke loss is caused, and therefore the processing efficiency is relatively low.
At the same time with other kinds of processing equipment CNC and automation of the great technical improvement, planing processing has been gradually replaced by the edge. From the current trend of equipment upgrading, this type of processing machine tool has not been a great upgrade and innovation, largely still stay in the original structure and layout. Especially the vertical machining center and Gantry machining center development, as well as the continuous innovation of processing tools, is in the processing range greatly replaced the processing advantage of the planer, so that the processing efficiency of relatively low equipment in a very embarrassing situation.
3) Machining accuracy of planer
Planing processing accuracy can generally reach IT10-IT7 precision grade, especially for some large machine tools of the long guide surface processing can even replace the grinding process, this is the so-called "fine planing instead of fine grinding" processing.