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The role and classification of automobile half shaft (drive shaft)

Views: 0     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-05-06      Origin: Site

The half shaft is the shaft that connects the differential to the drive wheel. The half shaft is the shaft that transfers the torque between the gearbox reducer and the driving wheel. Each of its inner and outer ends has a universal JOINT (U/JOINT) connected with the reducer gear and hub bearing inner ring through splines on the universal JOINT respectively.

1. The role of automobile half axle

The half shaft transmits power from the differential to the left and right driving wheels.

The half shaft is a solid shaft that transfers large torque between the differential and the drive axle. Its inner end is generally connected with the half shaft gear of the differential by spline, and the outer end is connected with the wheel shell of the drive wheel by flange disk or spline.

2. Automobile half axle construction

The half shaft is used to transfer power between the differential and the driving wheels. Half shaft gear reducer is between the driving wheel and the axis of the torque generally solid before, because of the hollow shaft rotational imbalance control more easily, now, a lot of cars with hollow shaft, axle shaft side of its inside and outside each have a universal JOINT (U/to be) respectively by the spline on the universal JOINT and gear reducer and wheel hub bearing inner ring connection.

3. Classification of automobile half axle

1) According to its support type different classification

According to the different supporting types of the commonly used semi-axle of modern cars, there are two kinds of fully floating and semi-floating.

A) Full floating half shaft

When working only bear torque, its two ends do not bear any force and bending moment of the half shaft called full floating halfsingle double universal joint wheel shaft - Xinsanming shaft. The flange of the outer end of the half shaft is bolted to the hub, which is mounted on the half shaft sleeve through two bearings far apart. The inner end of the structure of the full floating half shaft is spline, the outer end is flange, and there are a number of holes on the flange.  Full floating axle is widely used in commercial vehicles because of its reliability.

B) 3/4 floating half shaft

In addition to bearing all the torque, also bear part of the bending moment. The most prominent structural feature of the 3/4 floating half shaft is that the outer end of the half shaft has only one bearing, which supports the wheel hub. Due to the poor supporting stiffness of a bearing, this kind of half-shaft bears not only the torque, but also the bending moment caused by the vertical force, driving force and lateral force between the wheel and the road surface. The 3/4 floating half axle is rarely used in automobiles.

C) Half floating half shaft

The semi-floating half shaft is directly supported by the journal near the outer end of the bearing in the inner hole of the outer end of the axle housing, and the end of the half shaft is fixed with the journal and keys with a conical surface and the hub, or is directly connected with the wheel disc and the brake hub with the flange. Therefore, in addition to the transmission of torque, the half shaft also bears the vertical force from the wheel, driving force and lateral force caused by the bending moment. Semi - floating semi - shaft is used in passenger cars and some co-vehicles because of its simple structure, small mass and low cost.

2) According to the elastic points

Drive shaft according to its important component - universal joint of different, can have different classification. If there is obvious elasticity in the direction of torsion according to the universal joint, it can be divided into rigid universal joint drive shaft and flexible universal joint drive shaft.

A)Rigid universal joint: Transfer power by hinge connection of parts.

B)Flexible universal joint: By elastic parts to transfer power, and has a buffer reduction.

3)By angular rate

The rigid universal joint can be divided into unequal velocity universal joint (such as cross shaft universal joint), quasi-constant velocity universal joint (such as double universal joint, three pin shaft universal joint) and constant velocity universal joint (such as ball cage universal joint, ball fork universal joint). Constant speed and unequal speed refer to whether the rotational angular rate of the driven axis is equal when the driven axis rotates with the driving axis. Of course, the average rotational speed of the driving axis and the driven axis is equal.

A)Constant velocity universal joint:

A universal joint where the angular velocity of the main and driven axes is equal even when the included Angle between the two axes changes is called a constant velocity universal joint or a constant angular velocity universal joint. They are mainly used for steering drive axle, breaking drive axle and other wheel transmission devices, mainly used for power transmission in cars.

B)Uneven universal joint:

The angular velocity of the main and driven axes is not equal when the Angle between the two axes changes, called the unequal velocity universal joint, also known as the cross shaft universal joint. The cross shaft rigid universal joint drive shaft is the most widely used in automobile drive system and has the longest history. When the car is rear-wheel drive, the cross shaft universal joint drive shaft is often used. For some high-grade cars, there is also the use of constant speed ball head; When the car is front-wheel drive, the constant speed universal joint is often used -- constant speed universal joint is also a transmission shaft, but the name is different. Usually said drive shaft generally refers to the cross shaft type rigid universal joint drive shaft. The cross shaft rigid universal joint is mainly used for the change of transmission Angle, generally composed of protruding edge fork, cross shaft with needle roller bearing assembly, universal joint fork or sliding fork, intermediate connecting fork or spline shaft fork, needle roller bearing axial fixed parts. The flanged fork is a fork-shaped part with a flange. It is generally made of medium carbon steel or medium carbon alloy steel forgings, but also has sand castings made of ductile iron and precision castings of medium carbon steel or medium carbon high quality alloy steel. Cross shaft with needle roller bearing assembly generally consists of four needle roller bearings, a cross shaft, a grease nozzle. Needle roller bearings are generally composed of several needle rollers, a bearing bowl and a multi-edge rubber oil seal (part with a skeleton). In some needle bearings, there is a round gasket with oil groove, nylon, copper or other materials, mainly used to reduce the axial clearance of the universal joint, improve the dynamic balance quality of the drive shaft. The universal joint fork is a fork-shaped part, generally made of medium carbon steel or medium carbon alloy steel forged parts, there are also precision castings made of medium carbon steel. The axial fixator of needle roller bearings is generally an elastic retaining ring (inside and outside clamping type) for holes (or shafts), or bearing pressure plates, locking plates, bolts, etc.

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